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QigongEmerging Research Supporting Health Benefits of Qigong Exercise and Tai Chi practiced as Qigong: 2010 through 2014. A Bibliography.

Report from the NQA Research & Education Committee

Contribution Authors; PJ Klein, PT, EdD and Eric Imbody, MA, LPC

Date: 09/04/2015

Introduction

Often times, qigong instructors and practitioners are asked to provide research evidence supporting practice claims. As recently as 15 years ago, a lack of high-quality research validating the benefits of qigong exercise and tai chi performed as qigong was a primary barrier to achieving a goal of recognition of the value of these practices within health promotion and traditional Western health care. Awareness of the potential benefits of qigong exercise was stimulated in 2004 when Klein and Adams1  authored a review of the literature citing 17 research studies. The authors concluded that in 2004, preliminary research on implementation feasibility of Taiji (tai chi) programming existed for a variety of clinical populations. Over the next five years (2004-2009), through a growing awareness of the need for controlled research methodology and an expanding availability of research funding, the body of evidence strengthened. Practice validation was further advanced in 2010 when Jahnke et al2 published a review of 77 clinical research articles investigating qigong exercise and tai chi concluding that consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits were confirmed through independent, quality research. These researchers also established the equivalency of therapeutic tai chi as qigong exercise. However at that time, many questions of efficacy still remained unanswered, and many clinical areas were as yet unexplored.

 

Since 2010, in response to the growing interest among qigong practitioners, the public and traditional health care providers, programming planners and economists, there has been an exponential growth of dedicated research into practice validation with added emphasis on mechanism of action.  While exciting and potentially informative, the extent of this growing body of research has actually become somewhat overwhelming to the task for most general practitioners. Challenges include continuously monitoring reports as published, discerning the quality of research, weighing conclusions of conflicting reports, and projecting clinical implications.  The following bibliographic report, generated by a subcommittee of the National Qigong Association (NQA) Research and Education Committee (R&E), provides quick access to key research that has emerged subsequent to the Jahnke et al review of 2010.  This report is the first in a series of continuing ‘Research Focus Reports’ intended (a) to support and guide current and future Qigong exercise practice, (b) to serve as a resource for informing the public and clients, and (c) to garner support among policy makers to promote and fund future programming.

 

Methods

A subcommittee, consisting of two members of the R&E Committee, volunteered to review the literature published from 2010 through the end of 2014 on the PubMed database. Two searches were performed. Both search included the key words qigong, tai chi, t’ai chi, and taiji. Filters included humans and years: 2010 through 2014. Selection filters for the first search also included the study type: clinical research. Inclusion criteria were (a) randomized research, and (b) significant evidence of effect with noted clinical importance. Pilot and exploratory studies, feasibility studies, and studies where qigong exercise or tai chi performed as qigong exercise were not the main intervention were excluded. A second search of the database using the same key words was then conducted. This time, along with the filters of humans and years: 2010 through 2014, the study type was limited to literature reviews. Only literature reviews with findings concluding support of therapeutic benefit of qigong and tai chi exercise were included in the final bibliography.

 

Results

The search and review of the literature resulted in identification of 64 articles: 53 primary, randomized controlled clinical studies and 11 literature reviews validating therapeutic benefit of qigong exercise and tai chi practiced as qigong. The assembled bibliography was then categorized into clinical areas including cancer care, fall prevention, cardiac and cardiovascular, pulmonary care, healthy aging, stress management and immune support quality of life, general health benefits, bone health, Parkinson’s, fibromyalgia, arthritis, obesity, diabetes, neurologic, and mode of delivery.  In order to facilitate use of the bibliographic resource for users interested in specific clinical areas, when a study’s major findings crossed more than one clinical area, it was listed in all major areas of relevance. Also note, the inclusion of more than one reporting of a single study is made when the researchers chose to discuss different aspects of study finding in separate articles. [See appended bibliography for a categorized listing of selected research citations.]

 

Conclusion

It is the hoped that this bibliographic effort will serve as a resource in advancement of qigong exercise practice in health promotion and integrative health care.

 

References

  1. Klein PJ, Adams WD. Comprehensive therapeutic benefits of Taiji: a critical review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Sep;83(9):735-45. Review. PMID: 15314540
  2. Jahnke R, Larkey L, Rogers C, Etnier J, Lin F. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. Am J Health Promot. 2010 Jul-Aug;24(6):e1-e25. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.081013-LIT-248.

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Authors’ Note:
This resource is published as free access for the benefit of all.

 

About the Authors:

PJ Klein, PT, EdD is a former professor of physical therapy and clinical researcher. She currently teaches Qigong at S.U.N.Y. at Buffalo and is faculty with the Village of Healing and Wellness, St Catharines, ON (Contact: kleinqpj@roadrunner.com)

Eric Imbody, MA, L.P.C. is a qigong instructor, a life coach, and a psychotherapist affiliated with Transformation Solutions, Denver, CO. (Contact: ericimbody9@gmail.com)

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cancer Care

Zeng Y, Luo T, Xie H, Huang M, Cheng AS. Health benefits of qigong or tai chi for cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Complement Ther Med. 2014 Feb;22(1):173-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.11.010. Epub 2013 Dec 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 24559833.

Campo RA, Agarwal N, LaStayo PC, O’Connor K, Pappas L, Boucher KM, Gardner J, Smith S, Light KC, Kinney AY. Levels of fatigue and distress in senior prostate cancer survivors enrolled in a 12-week randomized controlled trial of Qigong. J Cancer Surviv. 2014 Mar;8(1):60-9. doi: 10.1007/s11764-013-0315-5. Epub 2013 Oct 30. PubMed PMID: 24170679; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3945387.

Wang R, Liu J, Chen P, Yu D. Regular tai chi exercise decreases the percentage of type 2 cytokine-producing cells in postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 2013 Jul-Aug;36(4):E27-34. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e318268f7d5. PubMed PMID: 23051870.

Chen Z, Meng Z, Milbury K, Bei W, Zhang Y, Thornton B, Liao Z, Wei Q, Chen J, Guo X, Liu L, McQuade J, Kirschbaum C, Cohen L. Qigong improves quality of life in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2013 May 1;119(9):1690-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27904. Epub 2013 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 23355182; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3852682

Lam, S.W.Y. A randomized, controlled trial of Guolin qigong in patients receiving transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma [master dissertation]. Hong Kong, China, The University of Hong Kong. cited in Zeng Y, Luo T, Xie H, Huang M, Cheng AS. Health benefits of qigong or tai chi for cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Complement Ther Med. 2014 Feb;22(1):173-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.11.010. Epub 2013 Dec 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 24559833.

Oh B, Butow PN, Mullan BA, Clarke SJ, Beale PJ, Pavlakis N, Lee MS, Rosenthal DS, Larkey L, Vardy J. Effect of medical Qigong on cognitive function, quality of life, and a biomarker of inflammation in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jun;20(6):1235-42. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1209-6. Epub 2011 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 21688163.

Oh B, Butow P, Mullan B, Clarke S, Beale P, Pavlakis N, Kothe E, Lam L, Rosenthal D. Impact of medical Qigong on quality of life, fatigue, mood and inflammation in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2010 Mar;21(3):608-14. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp479. Epub 2009 Oct 30.ta Oncol. 2007; 46(6):717-22.

Sprod LK, Janelsins MC, Palesh OG, Carroll JK, Heckler CE, Peppone LJ, Mohile SG, Morrow GR, Mustian KM. Health-related quality of life and biomarkers in breast cancer survivors participating in tai chi chuan. J Cancer Surviv. 2012 Jun;6(2):146-54. doi: 10.1007/s11764-011-0205-7. Epub 2011 Dec10. PMID: 22160628.

 

Fall Prevention,

Quigley PA, Bulat T, Schulz B, Friedman Y, Hart-Hughes S, Richardson JK, Barnett S. Exercise interventions, gait, and balance in older subjects with distal symmetric polyneuropathy: a three-group randomized clinical trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Jan;93(1):1-12; quiz 13-6. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000052. Erratum in: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Dec;93(12):1108. PubMed PMID: 24355993.

Tousignant M, Corriveau H, Roy PM, Desrosiers J, Dubuc N, Hébert R. Efficacy of supervised Tai Chi exercises versus conventional physical therapy exercises in fall prevention for frail older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Aug;35(17):1429-35. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2012.737084. Epub 2012 Nov 20. PubMed PMID: 23167499.

Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Sherrington C, Gates S, Clemson LM, Lamb SE. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD007146. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 22972103.

Li F, Harmer P, Liu Y, Eckstrom E, Fitzgerald K, Stock R, Chou LS. A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Apr;29(4):539-45. doi: 10.1002/mds.25787. Epub 2013 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 24375468; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3976742.

Chen EW, Fu AS, Chan KM, Tsang WW. The effects of Tai Chi on the balance control of elderly persons with visual impairment: a randomised clinical trial. Age Ageing. 2012 Mar;41(2):254-9. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afr146. Epub 2011 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 22180415.

Maciaszek J, Osinski W. Effect of Tai Chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in elderly men with dizziness. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(2):245-53. PubMed PMID: 22419420.

Huang HC, Liu CY, Huang YT, Kernohan WG. Community-based interventions to reduce falls among older adults in Taiwan – long time follow-up randomised controlled study. J Clin Nurs. 2010 Apr;19(7-8):959-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02834.x. PubMed PMID: 20492040.

Wu G, Keyes L, Callas P, Ren X, Bookchin B. Comparison of telecommunication, community, and home-based Tai Chi exercise programs on compliance and effectiveness in elders at risk for falls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Jun;91(6):849-56. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.01.024. PubMed PMID: 20510973.

 

Cardiac and Cardiovascular

Xiong X, Wang P, Li X, Zhang Y. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Jan;94(1):e352. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000352. Review. PubMed PMID: 25569652.

Lo HM, Yeh CY, Chang SC, Sung HC, Smith GD. A Tai Chi exercise programme improved exercise behaviour and reduced blood pressure in outpatients with hypertension. Int J Nurs Pract. 2012 Dec;18(6):545-51. doi: 10.1111/ijn.12006. PubMed PMID: 23181955.

Yeh GY, McCarthy EP, Wayne PM, Stevenson LW, Wood MJ, Forman D, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Tai chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Apr 25;171(8):750-7. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.150. PubMed PMID: 21518942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3277798.

 

Pulmonary Care

Ng BH, Tsang HW, Ng BF, So CT. Traditional Chinese exercises for pulmonary rehabilitation: evidence from a systematic review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2014 Nov-Dec;34(6):367-77. doi: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000062. Review. PubMed PMID: 24918351.

Wu W, Liu X, Wang L, Wang Z, Hu J, Yan J. Effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014 Nov 7;9:1253-63. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S70862. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25404855; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4230171.

Chan AW, Lee A, Lee DT, Suen LK, Tam WW, Chair SY, Griffiths P. The sustaining effects of Tai chi Qigong on physiological health for COPD patients: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2013 Dec;21(6):585-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.09.008. Epub 2013 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 24280465.

Chan AW, Lee A, Lee DT, Sit JW, Chair SY. Evaluation of the sustaining effects of Tai Chi Qigong in the sixth month in promoting psychosocial health in COPD patients: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 Oct 24;2013:425082. doi: 10.1155/2013/425082. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24282383; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3824309

Chan AW, Lee A, Suen LK, Tam WW. Tai chi Qigong improves lung functions and activity tolerance in COPD clients: a single blind, randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2011 Feb;19(1):3-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2010.12.007. Epub 2011 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 21296261.

Chan AW, Lee A, Suen LK, Tam WW. Effectiveness of a Tai chi Qigong program in promoting health-related quality of life and perceived social support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clients. Qual Life Res. 2010 Jun;19(5):653-64. doi: 10.1007/s11136-010-9632-6. Epub 2010 Mar 15. Erratum in: Qual Life Res. 2010 Oct;19(8):1241. PubMed PMID: 20229333.

 

Healthy Aging

Tiwari A, Chan CL, Ho RT, Tsao GS, Deng W, Hong AW, Fong DY, Fung HY, Pang EP, Cheung DS, Ma JL. Effect of a qigong intervention program on telomerase activity and psychological stress in abused Chinese women: a randomized, wait-list controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Aug 15;14:300. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-300. PubMed PMID: 25127878; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4138386.

Manor B, Lough M, Gagnon MM, Cupples A, Wayne PM, Lipsitz LA. Functional benefits of tai chi training in senior housing facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Aug;62(8):1484-9. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12946. Erratum in: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Nov;62(11):2233. PubMed PMID: 25116984; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4196697.

Lu WA, Kuo CD. Three months of Tai Chi Chuan exercise can reduce serum triglyceride and endothelin-1 in the elderly. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013 Nov;19(4):204-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2013.06.007. Epub 2013 Jul 27. PubMed PMID: 24199974

Ho RT, Chan JS, Wang CW, Lau BW, So KF, Yuen LP, Sham JS, Chan CL. A randomized controlled trial of qigong exercise on fatigue symptoms, functioning, and telomerase activity in persons with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Behav Med. 2012 Oct;44(2):160-70. doi: 10.1007/s12160-012-9381-6. PubMed PMID: 22736201; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3442161

Irwin MR, Olmstead R. Mitigating cellular inflammation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;20(9):764-72. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3182330fd3. PubMed PMID: 21934474; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3247625.

Rosado-Pérez J, Ortiz R, Santiago-Osorio E, Mendoza-Núñez VM. Effect of Tai Chi versus walking on oxidative stress in Mexican older adults. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:298590. doi: 10.1155/2013/298590. Epub 2013 Jul 7. PubMed PMID: 23936607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3725784.

 

Bone Health

Chyu MC, James CR, Sawyer SF, Brismée JM, Xu KT, Poklikuha G, Dunn DM, Shen CL. Effects of tai chi exercise on posturography, gait, physical function and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteopaenia: a randomized clinical study. Clin Rehabil. 2010 Dec;24(12):1080-90. doi: 10.1177/0269215510375902. Epub 2010 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 20702512.

Song R, Roberts BL, Lee EO, Lam P, Bae SC. A randomized study of the effects of t’ai chi on muscle strength, bone mineral density, and fear of falling in women with osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Mar;16(3):227-33. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0165. PubMed PMID: 20192907.

 

Cognition

Lam LC, Chan WM, Kwok TC, Chiu HF. Effectiveness of Tai Chi in maintenance of cognitive and functional abilities in mild cognitive impairment: a randomised controlled trial. Hong Kong Med J. 2014 Jun;20(3 Suppl 3):20-3. PubMed PMID: 25001031.

Wayne PM, Walsh JN, Taylor-Piliae RE, Wells RE, Papp KV, Donovan NJ, Yeh GY. Effect of tai chi on cognitive performance in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jan;62(1):25-39. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12611. Epub 2014 Jan 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 24383523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4055508.

Lam LC, Chau RC, Wong BM, Fung AW, Tam CW, Leung GT, Kwok TC, Leung TY, Ng SP, Chan WM. A 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing mind body exercise (Tai Chi) with stretching and toning exercise on cognitive function in older Chinese adults at risk of cognitive decline. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012 Jul;13(6):568.e15-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2012.03.008.

Nguyen MH, Kruse A. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:185-90. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S32600. Epub 2012 Jun 22. PubMed PMID: 22807627;

Mortimer JA, Ding D, Borenstein AR, DeCarli C, Guo Q, Wu Y, Zhao Q, Chu S. Changes in brain volume and cognition in a randomized trial of exercise and social interaction in a community-based sample of non-demented Chinese elders. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;30(4):757-66. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2012-120079. PubMed PMID: 22451320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3788823.

 

Stress Management and Immune Support

Wang CW, Chan CH, Ho RT, Chan JS, Ng SM, Chan CL. Managing stress and anxiety through qigong exercise in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jan 9;14:8. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 24400778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3893407.

Morgan N, Irwin MR, Chung M, Wang C. The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 2;9(7):e100903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100903. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 24988414; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4079606.

Chan ES, Koh D, Teo YC, Hj Tamin R, Lim A, Fredericks S. Biochemical and psychometric evaluation of Self-Healing Qigong as a stress reduction tool among first year nursing and midwifery students. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013 Nov;19(4):179-83. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2013.08.001. Epub 2013 Aug 30. PubMed PMID: 24199969.

Hwang EY, Chung SY, Cho JH, Song MY, Kim S, Kim JW. Effects of a brief Qigong-based stress reduction program (BQSRP) in a distressed Korean population: a randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 May 25;13:113. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-113. PubMed PMID: 23705963; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3680074.

Nedeljkovic M, Ausfeld-Hafter B, Streitberger K, Seiler R, Wirtz PH. Taiji practice attenuates psychobiological stress reactivity–a randomized controlled trial in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Aug;37(8):1171-80. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.007. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22222120.

Rosado-Pérez J, Santiago-Osorio E, Ortiz R, Mendoza-Núñez VM. Tai chi diminishes oxidative stress in Mexican older adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012 Jul;16(7):642-6. PubMed PMID: 22836707.

Terjestam Y, Jouper J, Johansson C. Effects of scheduled qigong exercise on pupils’ well-being, self-image, distress, and stress. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Sep;16(9):939-44. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0405. PubMed PMID: 20738165.

 

General Health and Health Care Benefits

Li G, Yuan H, Zhang W. Effects of Tai Chi on health related quality of life in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2014 Aug;22(4):743-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2014.06.003. Epub 2014 Jun 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 25146080.

Jahnke R, Larkey L, Rogers C, Etnier J, Lin F. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. Am J Health Promot. 2010 Jul-Aug;24(6):e1-e25. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.081013-LIT-248. Review. PubMed PMID: 20594090; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3085832.

Nedeljkovic M, Ausfeld-Hafter B, Streitberger K, Seiler R, Wirtz PH. Taiji practice attenuates psychobiological stress reactivity–a randomized controlled trial in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Aug;37(8):1171-80. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.007. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22222120.

Nguyen MH, Kruse A. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:185-90. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S32600. Epub 2012 Jun 22. PubMed PMID: 22807627;

Mendoza-Núñez VM, Hernández-Monjaraz B, Santiago-Osorio E, Betancourt-Rule JM, Ruiz-Ramos M. Tai Chi exercise increases SOD activity and total antioxidant status in saliva and is linked to an improvement of periodontal disease in the elderly. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:603853. doi: 10.1155/2014/603853. Epub 2014 Mar 26. PubMed PMID: 24790703; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3984794.

 

Quality of Life

Dechamps A, Diolez P, Thiaudière E, Tulon A, Onifade C, Vuong T, Helmer C, Bourdel-Marchasson I. Effects of exercise programs to prevent decline in health-related quality of life in highly deconditioned institutionalized elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jan 25;170(2):162-9. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.489. PubMed PMID: 20101011.

Black DS, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Ji E, Crabb Breen E, Motivala SJ. Tai chi meditation effects on nuclear factor-κB signaling in lonely older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2014;83(5):315-7. doi: 10.1159/000359956. Epub 2014 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 25116908; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4165547

 

Parkinson’s

Li F, Harmer P, Liu Y, Eckstrom E, Fitzgerald K, Stock R, Chou LS. A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Apr;29(4):539-45. doi: 10.1002/mds.25787. Epub 2013 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 24375468; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3976742.

Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Eckstrom E, Stock R, Galver J, Maddalozzo G, Batya SS. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 9;366(6):511-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1107911. PubMed PMID: 22316445; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3285459.

 

Fibromyalgia

Lynch M, Sawynok J, Hiew C, Marcon D. A randomized controlled trial of qigong for fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Aug 3;14(4):R178. doi: 10.1186/ar3931. PubMed PMID: 22863206; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3580572.

Ho RT, Chan JS, Wang CW, Lau BW, So KF, Yuen LP, Sham JS, Chan CL. A randomized controlled trial of qigong exercise on fatigue symptoms, functioning, and telomerase activity in persons with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Behav Med. 2012 Oct;44(2):160-70. doi: 10.1007/s12160-012-9381-6. PubMed PMID: 22736201; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3442161

Jones KD, Sherman CA, Mist SD, Carson JW, Bennett RM, Li F. A randomized controlled trial of 8-form Tai chi improves symptoms and functional mobility in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Aug;31(8):1205-14. doi: 10.1007/s10067-012-1996-2. Epub 2012 May 13. PubMed PMID: 22581278.

Wang C, Schmid CH, Rones R, Kalish R, Yinh J, Goldenberg DL, Lee Y, McAlindon T. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 19;363(8):743-54. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0912611. PubMed PMID: 20818876; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3023168.

 

Arthritis

Tsai PF, Chang JY, Beck C, Kuo YF, KeffeFJ. A pilot cluster-randomized trial of a 20-week Tai Chi program for elders with cognitive impairment and osteoarthritic knee effects on pain and other outcomes. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013 Apr;45(4):660-9.doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.04.009. Epub 2012 Sep24.PMID: 23017610.

Hall AM, Maher CG, Lam P, Ferreira M, Latimer J. Tai chi exercise for treatment of pain and disability in people with persistent low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Nov;63(11):1576-83. doi: 10.1002/acr.20594. PubMed PMID: 22034119.

Rendant D, Pach D, Lüdtke R, Reisshauer A, Mietzner A, Willich SN, Witt CM. Qigong versus exercise versus no therapy for patients with chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Mar 15;36(6):419-27. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181d51fca. PubMed PMID: 21178832.

 

Obesity

Beebe N, Magnanti S, Katkowski L, Benson M, Xu F, Delmonico MJ, Lofgren IE. Effects of the addition of t’ai chi to a dietary weight loss program on lipoprotein atherogenicity in obese older women. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Sep;19(9):759-66. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0531. Epub 2013 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 23484524.

Chen SC, Ueng KC, Lee SH, Sun KT, Lee MC. Effect of t’ai chi exercise on biochemical profiles and oxidative stress indicators in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Nov;16(11):1153-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0560. Epub 2010 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 20973735.

 

Diabetes

Liu X, Miller YD, Burton NW, Chang JH, Brown WJ. The effect of Tai Chi on health-related quality of life in people with elevated blood glucose or diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Qual Life Res. 2013 Sep;22(7):1783-6. doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0311-7. Epub 2012 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 23143590.

 

Neurologic

Burschka JM, Keune PM, Oy UH, Oschmann P, Kuhn P. Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression. BMC Neurol. 2014 Aug 23;14:165. doi: 10.1186/s12883-014-0165-4. PubMed PMID: 25145392; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4236646.

Taylor-Piliae RE, Hoke TM, Hepworth JT, Latt LD, Najafi B, Coull BM. Effect of Tai Chi on physical function, fall rates and quality of life among older stroke survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):816-24. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 24440643.

Mańko G, Ziółkowski A, Mirski A, Kłosiński M. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI. Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 16;19:767-72. doi: 10.12659/MSM.889480. PubMed PMID: 24036691; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3781199.

 

Modes of Delivery

 

Wu G, Keyes L, Callas P, Ren X, Bookchin B. Comparison of telecommunication, community, and home-based Tai Chi exercise programs on compliance and effectiveness in elders at risk for falls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Jun; 91(6):849-56. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.01.024. PubMed PMID: 20510973 37: Cited in PMCRelated citations PMC3725784.